Social assistance (aka income support, income assistance, or welfare) is available for individuals whose personal resources have been exhausted and who require assistance to cover the costs of their basic needs. In Canada, provinces and territories have primary jurisdiction over the provision of social services. Because of this, social assistance programs vary provincially and territorially. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) are responsible for social assistance provision in Indigenous communities. It is widely recognized that social assistance programs in Canada do not provide adequate support for individuals and families to meet their basic needs. Current levels of social assistance provided are not enough to combat food insecurity, poor health outcomes, and the risk of homelessness. This section provides a deep dive into these experiences.